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2011 Tax 1040 Ez

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2011 Tax 1040 Ez

2011 tax 1040 ez 14. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Penalties and Interest Table of Contents Penalties and interest may result from any of the following acts. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to collect and pay over tax as the collecting agent (see Trust fund recovery penalty, later). 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to keep adequate records. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to file returns. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to pay taxes. 2011 tax 1040 ez Filing returns late. 2011 tax 1040 ez Filing false or fraudulent returns. 2011 tax 1040 ez Paying taxes late. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to make deposits. 2011 tax 1040 ez Depositing taxes late. 2011 tax 1040 ez Making false statements relating to tax. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failing to register. 2011 tax 1040 ez Misrepresenting that tax is excluded from the price of an article. 2011 tax 1040 ez Failure to register. 2011 tax 1040 ez   The penalty for failure to register if you are required to register, unless due to reasonable cause, is $10,000 for the initial failure, and then $1,000 each day thereafter you fail to register. 2011 tax 1040 ez Claims. 2011 tax 1040 ez   There are criminal penalties for false or fraudulent claims. 2011 tax 1040 ez In addition, any person who files a refund claim, discussed earlier, for an excessive amount (without reasonable cause) may have to pay a penalty. 2011 tax 1040 ez An excessive amount is the amount claimed that is more than the allowable amount. 2011 tax 1040 ez The penalty is the greater of two times the excessive amount or $10. 2011 tax 1040 ez Trust fund recovery penalty. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you provide taxable communications, air transportation services, or indoor tanning services, you have to collect excise taxes (as discussed earlier) from those persons who pay you for those services. 2011 tax 1040 ez You must pay over these taxes to the U. 2011 tax 1040 ez S. 2011 tax 1040 ez Government. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you willfully fail to collect or pay over these taxes, or if you evade or defeat them in any way, the trust fund recovery penalty may apply. 2011 tax 1040 ez Willfully means voluntarily, consciously, and intentionally. 2011 tax 1040 ez The trust fund recovery penalty equals 100% of the taxes not collected or not paid over to the U. 2011 tax 1040 ez S. 2011 tax 1040 ez Government. 2011 tax 1040 ez   The trust fund recovery penalty may be imposed on any person responsible for collecting, accounting for, and paying over these taxes. 2011 tax 1040 ez If this person knows that these required actions are not taking place for whatever reason, the person is acting willfully. 2011 tax 1040 ez Paying other expenses of the business instead of paying the taxes is willful behavior. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A responsible person can be an officer or employee of a corporation, a partner or employee of a partnership, or any other person who had responsibility for certain aspects of the business and financial affairs of the employer (or business). 2011 tax 1040 ez This may include accountants, trustees in bankruptcy, members of a board, banks, insurance companies, or sureties. 2011 tax 1040 ez The responsible person could even be another corporation—in other words, anyone who has the duty and the ability to direct, account for, or pay over the money. 2011 tax 1040 ez Having signature power on the business checking account could be a significant factor in determining responsibility. 2011 tax 1040 ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 10-Mar-2014

The 2011 Tax 1040 Ez

2011 tax 1040 ez 2. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Accounting Methods Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Accounting MethodsCash Method Accrual Method Farm Inventory Cash Versus Accrual Method Special Methods of Accounting Combination Method Changes in Methods of Accounting Introduction You must use an accounting method that clearly shows your income and expenses. 2011 tax 1040 ez You must also figure your taxable income and file an income tax return for an annual accounting period called a tax year. 2011 tax 1040 ez This chapter discusses accounting methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez For information on accounting periods, see Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods, and the Instructions for Form 1128, Application To Adopt, Change, or Retain a Tax Year. 2011 tax 1040 ez Topics - This chapter discusses: Cash method Accrual method Farm inventory Special methods of accounting Changes in methods of accounting Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 538 Accounting Periods and Methods 535 Business Expenses Form (and Instructions) 1128 Application To Adopt, Change, or Retain a Tax Year 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. 2011 tax 1040 ez Accounting Methods An accounting method is a set of rules used to determine when and how your income and expenses are reported on your tax return. 2011 tax 1040 ez Your accounting method includes not only your overall method of accounting, but also the accounting treatment you use for any material item. 2011 tax 1040 ez A material item is one that affects the proper time for inclusion of income or allowance of a deduction. 2011 tax 1040 ez An item considered material for financial statement purposes is generally also considered material for income tax purposes. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Publication 538 for more information. 2011 tax 1040 ez You generally choose an accounting method for your farm business when you file your first income tax return that includes a Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you later want to change your accounting method, you generally must get IRS approval. 2011 tax 1040 ez How to obtain IRS approval is discussed later under Changes in Methods of Accounting . 2011 tax 1040 ez Types of accounting methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Generally, you can use any of the following accounting methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez Each method is discussed in detail below. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cash method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Accrual method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Special methods of accounting for certain items of income and expenses. 2011 tax 1040 ez Combination (hybrid) method using elements of two or more of the above. 2011 tax 1040 ez Business and other items. 2011 tax 1040 ez   You can account for business and personal items using different accounting methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez For example, you can figure your business income under an accrual method, even if you use the cash method to figure personal items. 2011 tax 1040 ez Two or more businesses. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you operate two or more separate and distinct businesses, you can use a different accounting method for each business. 2011 tax 1040 ez Generally, no business is separate and distinct unless a complete and separate set of books and records is maintained for each business. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cash Method Most farmers use the cash method because they find it easier to keep records using the cash method. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, certain farm corporations and partnerships and all tax shelters must use an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Accrual Method Required , later. 2011 tax 1040 ez Income Under the cash method, include in your gross income all items of income you actually or constructively received during the tax year. 2011 tax 1040 ez Items of income include money received as well as property or services received. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you receive property or services, you must include the fair market value (FMV) of the property or services in income. 2011 tax 1040 ez See chapter 3 for information on how to report farm income on your income tax return. 2011 tax 1040 ez Constructive receipt. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Income is constructively received when an amount is credited to your account or made available to you without restriction. 2011 tax 1040 ez You do not need to have possession of the income for it to be treated as income for the tax year. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you authorize someone to be your agent and receive income for you, you are considered to have received the income when your agent receives it. 2011 tax 1040 ez Income is not constructively received if your receipt of the income is subject to substantial restrictions or limitations. 2011 tax 1040 ez Direct payments and counter-cyclical payments. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you received direct payments or counter-cyclical payments under Subtitle A or C of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, you will not be considered to have constructively received a payment merely because you had the option to receive it in the year before it is required to be paid. 2011 tax 1040 ez Delaying receipt of income. 2011 tax 1040 ez   You cannot hold checks or postpone taking possession of similar property from one tax year to another to avoid paying tax on the income. 2011 tax 1040 ez You must report the income in the year the money or property is received or made available to you without restriction. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example. 2011 tax 1040 ez Frances Jones, a farmer, was entitled to receive a $10,000 payment on a grain contract in December 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez She was told in December that her payment was available. 2011 tax 1040 ez She requested not to be paid until January 2014. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, she must still include this payment in her 2013 income because it was made available to her in 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez Debts paid by another person or canceled. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If your debts are paid by another person or are canceled by your creditors, you may have to report part or all of this debt relief as income. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you receive income in this way, you constructively receive the income when the debt is canceled or paid. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Cancellation of Debt in chapter 3. 2011 tax 1040 ez Deferred payment contract. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you sell an item under a deferred payment contract that calls for payment in a future year, there is no constructive receipt in the year of sale. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, if the sales contract states that you have the right to the proceeds of the sale from the buyer at any time after delivery of the item, then you must include the sales price in income in the year of the sale, regardless of when you actually receive payment. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example. 2011 tax 1040 ez You are a farmer who uses the cash method and a calendar tax year. 2011 tax 1040 ez You sell grain in December 2013 under a bona fide arm's-length contract that calls for payment in 2014. 2011 tax 1040 ez You include the proceeds from the sale in your 2014 gross income since that is the year payment is received. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, if the contract states that you have the right to the proceeds from the buyer at any time after the grain is delivered, you must include the sales price in your 2013 income, regardless of when you actually receive payment. 2011 tax 1040 ez Repayment of income. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you include an amount in income and in a later year you have to repay all or part of it, then you can usually deduct the repayment in the year repaid. 2011 tax 1040 ez If the repayment is more than $3,000, a special rule applies. 2011 tax 1040 ez For details, see Repayments in chapter 11 of Publication 535, Business Expenses. 2011 tax 1040 ez Expenses Under the cash method, generally you deduct expenses in the tax year you pay them. 2011 tax 1040 ez This includes business expenses for which you contest liability. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, you may not be able to deduct an expense paid in advance or you may be required to capitalize certain costs, as explained under Uniform Capitalization Rules in chapter 6. 2011 tax 1040 ez See chapter 4 for information on how to deduct farm business expenses on your income tax return. 2011 tax 1040 ez Prepayment. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Generally, you cannot deduct expenses paid in advance. 2011 tax 1040 ez This rule applies to any expense paid far enough in advance to, in effect, create an asset with a useful life extending substantially beyond the end of the current tax year. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example. 2011 tax 1040 ez On November 1, 2013, you signed and paid $3,600 for a 3-year (36-month) insurance contract for equipment. 2011 tax 1040 ez In 2013, you are allowed to deduct only $200 (2/36 x $3,600) of the cost of the policy that is attributable to 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez In 2014, you'll be able to deduct $1,200 (12/36 x $3,600); in 2015, you'll be able to deduct $1,200 (12/36 x $3,600); and in 2016 you'll be able to deduct the remaining balance of $1,000. 2011 tax 1040 ez An exception applies if the expense qualifies for the 12-month rule. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Publication 538 for more information and examples. 2011 tax 1040 ez See chapter 4 for special rules for prepaid farm supplies and prepaid livestock feed. 2011 tax 1040 ez Accrual Method Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally report income in the year earned and deduct or capitalize expenses in the year incurred. 2011 tax 1040 ez The purpose of an accrual method of accounting is to correctly match income and expenses. 2011 tax 1040 ez Certain businesses engaged in farming must use an accrual method of accounting for its farm business and for sales and purchases of inventory items. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Accrual Method Required and Farm Inventory , later. 2011 tax 1040 ez Income Generally, you include an amount in income for the tax year in which all events that fix your right to receive the income have occurred, and you can determine the amount with reasonable accuracy. 2011 tax 1040 ez Under this rule, include an amount in income on the earliest of the following dates. 2011 tax 1040 ez When you receive payment. 2011 tax 1040 ez When the income amount is due to you. 2011 tax 1040 ez When you earn the income. 2011 tax 1040 ez When title passes. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you use an accrual method of accounting, complete Part III of Schedule F (Form 1040) to report your income. 2011 tax 1040 ez Inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you keep an inventory, generally you must use an accrual method of accounting to determine your gross income. 2011 tax 1040 ez An inventory is necessary to clearly show income when the production, purchase, or sale of merchandise is an income-producing factor. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Publication 538 for more information. 2011 tax 1040 ez Also see Farm Inventory , later, for more information on items that must be included in inventory by farmers and inventory valuation methods for farmers. 2011 tax 1040 ez Expenses Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally deduct or capitalize a business expense when both of the following apply. 2011 tax 1040 ez The all-events test has been met. 2011 tax 1040 ez This test is met when: All events have occurred that fix the fact that you have a liability, and The amount of the liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy. 2011 tax 1040 ez Economic performance has occurred. 2011 tax 1040 ez Economic performance. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Generally, you cannot deduct or capitalize a business expense until economic performance occurs. 2011 tax 1040 ez If your expense is for property or services provided to you, or for your use of property, economic performance occurs as the property or services are provided or as the property is used. 2011 tax 1040 ez If your expense is for property or services you provide to others, economic performance occurs as you provide the property or services. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example. 2011 tax 1040 ez Jane, who is a farmer, uses a calendar tax year and an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez She entered into a contract with ABC Farm Consulting in 2012. 2011 tax 1040 ez The contract stated that Jane pay ABC Farm Consulting $2,000 in December 2012. 2011 tax 1040 ez It further stipulates that ABC Farm Consulting will develop a plan for integrating her farm with a larger farm operation based in a neighboring state by March 1, 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez Jane paid ABC Farm Consulting $2,000 in December 2012. 2011 tax 1040 ez Integration of operations according to the plan began in May 2013 and they completed the integration in December 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez Economic performance for Jane's liability in the contract occurs as the services are provided. 2011 tax 1040 ez Jane incurs the $2,000 cost in 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez An exception to the economic performance rule allows certain recurring items to be treated as incurred during a tax year even though economic performance has not occurred. 2011 tax 1040 ez For more information, see Economic Performance in Publication 538. 2011 tax 1040 ez Special rule for related persons. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Business expenses and interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method of accounting are not deductible until you make the payment and the corresponding amount is includible in the related person's gross income. 2011 tax 1040 ez Determine the relationship for this rule as of the end of the tax year for which the expense or interest would otherwise be deductible. 2011 tax 1040 ez For more information, see Internal Revenue Code section 267. 2011 tax 1040 ez Accrual Method Required Generally, the following businesses, if engaged in farming, must use an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez A corporation (other than a family corporation) that had gross receipts of more than $1,000,000 for any tax year beginning after 1975. 2011 tax 1040 ez A family corporation that had gross receipts of more than $25,000,000 for any tax year beginning after 1985. 2011 tax 1040 ez A partnership with a corporation as a partner, if that corporation meets the requirements of (1) or (2) above. 2011 tax 1040 ez A tax shelter. 2011 tax 1040 ez Note. 2011 tax 1040 ez Items (1), (2), and (3) above do not apply to an S corporation or a business operating a nursery or sod farm, or the raising or harvesting of trees (other than fruit and nut trees). 2011 tax 1040 ez Family corporation. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A family corporation is generally a corporation that meets one of the following ownership requirements. 2011 tax 1040 ez Members of the same family own at least 50% of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 50% of the total shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation. 2011 tax 1040 ez Members of two families have owned, directly or indirectly, since October 4, 1976, at least 65% of the total combined voting power of all classes of voting stock and at least 65% of the total shares of all other classes of the corporation's stock. 2011 tax 1040 ez Members of three families have owned, directly or indirectly, since October 4, 1976, at least 50% of the total combined voting power of all classes of voting stock and at least 50% of the total shares of all other classes of the corporation's stock. 2011 tax 1040 ez For more information on family corporations, see Internal Revenue Code section 447. 2011 tax 1040 ez Tax shelter. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A tax shelter is a partnership, noncorporate enterprise, or S corporation that meets either of the following tests. 2011 tax 1040 ez Its principal purpose is the avoidance or evasion of federal income tax. 2011 tax 1040 ez It is a farming syndicate. 2011 tax 1040 ez A farming syndicate is an entity that meets either of the following tests. 2011 tax 1040 ez Interests in the activity have been offered for sale in an offering required to be registered with a federal or state agency with the authority to regulate the offering of securities for sale. 2011 tax 1040 ez More than 35% of the losses during the tax year are allocable to limited partners or limited entrepreneurs. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A “limited partner” is one whose personal liability for partnership debts is limited to the money or other property the partner contributed or is required to contribute to the partnership. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A “limited entrepreneur” is one who has an interest in an enterprise other than as a limited partner and does not actively participate in the management of the enterprise. 2011 tax 1040 ez Farm Inventory If you are required to keep an inventory, you should keep a complete record of your inventory as part of your farm records. 2011 tax 1040 ez This record should show the actual count or measurement of the inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez It should also show all factors that enter into its valuation, including quality and weight, if applicable. 2011 tax 1040 ez Hatchery business. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you are in the hatchery business, and use an accrual method of accounting, you must include in inventory eggs in the process of incubation. 2011 tax 1040 ez Products held for sale. 2011 tax 1040 ez   All harvested and purchased farm products held for sale or for feed or seed, such as grain, hay, silage, concentrates, cotton, tobacco, etc. 2011 tax 1040 ez , must be included in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez Supplies. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Supplies acquired for sale or that become a physical part of items held for sale must be included in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez Deduct the cost of supplies in the year used or consumed in operations. 2011 tax 1040 ez Do not include incidental supplies in inventory as these are deductible in the year of purchase. 2011 tax 1040 ez Livestock. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Livestock held primarily for sale must be included in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez Livestock held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes can either be depreciated or included in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez See also Unit-livestock-price method , later. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you are in the business of breeding and raising chinchillas, mink, foxes, or other fur-bearing animals, these animals are livestock for inventory purposes. 2011 tax 1040 ez Growing crops. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Generally, growing crops are not required to be included in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, if the crop has a preproductive period of more than 2 years, you may have to capitalize (or include in inventory) costs associated with the crop. 2011 tax 1040 ez See Uniform capitalization rules below. 2011 tax 1040 ez Also see Uniform Capitalization Rules in  chapter 6. 2011 tax 1040 ez Items to include in inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Your inventory should include all items held for sale, or for use as feed, seed, etc. 2011 tax 1040 ez , whether raised or purchased, that are unsold at the end of the year. 2011 tax 1040 ez Uniform capitalization rules. 2011 tax 1040 ez   The following applies if you are required to use an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez The uniform capitalization rules apply to all costs of raising a plant, even if the preproductive period of raising a plant is 2 years or less. 2011 tax 1040 ez The costs of animals are subject to the uniform capitalization rules. 2011 tax 1040 ez Inventory valuation methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez   The following methods, described below, are those generally available for valuing inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez The method you use must conform to generally accepted accounting principles for similar businesses and must clearly reflect income. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cost. 2011 tax 1040 ez Lower of cost or market. 2011 tax 1040 ez Farm-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Unit-livestock-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cost and lower of cost or market methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez   See Publication 538 for information on these valuation methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you value your livestock inventory at cost or the lower of cost or market, you do not need IRS approval to change to the unit-livestock-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, if you value your livestock inventory using the farm-price method, then you must obtain permission from the IRS to change to the unit-livestock-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Farm-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Under this method, each item, whether raised or purchased, is valued at its market price less the direct cost of disposition. 2011 tax 1040 ez Market price is the current price at the nearest market in the quantities you usually sell. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cost of disposition includes broker's commissions, freight, hauling to market, and other marketing costs. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you use this method, you must use it for your entire inventory, except that livestock can be inventoried under the unit-livestock-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez Unit-livestock-price method. 2011 tax 1040 ez   This method recognizes the difficulty of establishing the exact costs of producing and raising each animal. 2011 tax 1040 ez You group or classify livestock according to type and age and use a standard unit price for each animal within a class or group. 2011 tax 1040 ez The unit price you assign should reasonably approximate the normal costs incurred in producing the animals in such classes. 2011 tax 1040 ez Unit prices and classifications are subject to approval by the IRS on examination of your return. 2011 tax 1040 ez You must annually reevaluate your unit livestock prices and adjust the prices upward or downward to reflect increases or decreases in the costs of raising livestock. 2011 tax 1040 ez IRS approval is not required for these adjustments. 2011 tax 1040 ez Any other changes in unit prices or classifications do require IRS approval. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you use this method, include all raised livestock in inventory, regardless of whether they are held for sale or for draft, breeding, sport, or dairy purposes. 2011 tax 1040 ez This method accounts only for the increase in cost of raising an animal to maturity. 2011 tax 1040 ez It does not provide for any decrease in the animal's market value after it reaches maturity. 2011 tax 1040 ez Also, if you raise cattle, you are not required to inventory hay you grow to feed your herd. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Do not include sold or lost animals in the year-end inventory. 2011 tax 1040 ez If your records do not show which animals were sold or lost, treat the first animals acquired as sold or lost. 2011 tax 1040 ez The animals on hand at the end of the year are considered those most recently acquired. 2011 tax 1040 ez   You must include in inventory all livestock purchased primarily for sale. 2011 tax 1040 ez You can choose either to include in inventory or depreciate livestock purchased for draft, breeding, sport or dairy purposes. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, you must be consistent from year to year, regardless of the method you have chosen. 2011 tax 1040 ez You cannot change your method without obtaining approval from the IRS. 2011 tax 1040 ez   You must include in inventory animals purchased after maturity or capitalize them at their purchase price. 2011 tax 1040 ez If the animals are not mature at purchase, increase the cost at the end of each tax year according to the established unit price. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, in the year of purchase, do not increase the cost of any animal purchased during the last 6 months of the year. 2011 tax 1040 ez This “no increase” rule does not apply to tax shelters which must make an adjustment for any animal purchased during the year. 2011 tax 1040 ez It also does not apply to taxpayers that must make an adjustment to reasonably reflect the particular period in the year in which animals are purchased, if necessary to avoid significant distortions in income. 2011 tax 1040 ez Uniform capitalization rules. 2011 tax 1040 ez   A farmer can determine costs required to be allocated under the uniform capitalization rules by using the farm-price or unit-livestock-price inventory method. 2011 tax 1040 ez This applies to any plant or animal, even if the farmer does not hold or treat the plant or animal as inventory property. 2011 tax 1040 ez Cash Versus Accrual Method The following examples compare the cash and accrual methods of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example 1. 2011 tax 1040 ez You are a farmer who uses an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez You keep your books on the calendar year basis. 2011 tax 1040 ez You sell grain in December 2013 but you are not paid until January 2014. 2011 tax 1040 ez Because the accrual method was used and 2013 was the tax year in which the grain was sold, you must both include the sales proceeds and deduct the costs incurred in producing the grain on your 2013 tax return. 2011 tax 1040 ez Example 2. 2011 tax 1040 ez Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you use the cash method and there was no constructive receipt of the sales proceeds in 2013. 2011 tax 1040 ez Under this method, you include the sales proceeds in income for 2014, the year you receive payment. 2011 tax 1040 ez Deduct the costs of producing the grain in the year you pay for them. 2011 tax 1040 ez Special Methods of Accounting There are special methods of accounting for certain items of income and expense. 2011 tax 1040 ez Crop method. 2011 tax 1040 ez   If you do not harvest and dispose of your crop in the same tax year that you plant it, you can, with IRS approval, use the crop method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez You cannot use the crop method for any tax return, including your first tax return, unless you receive approval from the IRS. 2011 tax 1040 ez Under this method, you deduct the entire cost of producing the crop, including the expense of seed or young plants, in the year you realize income from the crop. 2011 tax 1040 ez    See chapter 4 for details on deducting the costs of operating a farm. 2011 tax 1040 ez Also see Regulations section 1. 2011 tax 1040 ez 162-12. 2011 tax 1040 ez Other special methods. 2011 tax 1040 ez   Other special methods of accounting apply to the following items. 2011 tax 1040 ez Amortization, see chapter 7. 2011 tax 1040 ez Casualties, see chapter 11. 2011 tax 1040 ez Condemnations, see chapter 11. 2011 tax 1040 ez Depletion, see chapter 7. 2011 tax 1040 ez Depreciation, see chapter 7. 2011 tax 1040 ez Farm business expenses, see chapter 4. 2011 tax 1040 ez Farm income, see chapter 3. 2011 tax 1040 ez Installment sales, see chapter 10. 2011 tax 1040 ez Soil and water conservation expenses, see chapter 5. 2011 tax 1040 ez Thefts, see chapter 11. 2011 tax 1040 ez Combination Method Generally, you can use any combination of cash, accrual, and special methods of accounting if the combination clearly shows your income and expenses and you use it consistently. 2011 tax 1040 ez However, the following restrictions apply. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you use the cash method for figuring your income, you must use the cash method for reporting your expenses. 2011 tax 1040 ez If you use an accrual method for reporting your expenses, you must use an accrual method for figuring your income. 2011 tax 1040 ez Changes in Methods of Accounting A change in your method of accounting includes a change in: Your overall method, such as from the cash method to an accrual method, and Your treatment of any material item, such as a change in your method of valuing inventory (for example, a change from the farm-price method to the unit-livestock-price method, discussed earlier). 2011 tax 1040 ez Generally, once you have set up your accounting method, you must receive approval from the IRS before you can change to another method of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez You may also have to pay a fee. 2011 tax 1040 ez To obtain approval, you must generally file Form 3115. 2011 tax 1040 ez There are instances when you can obtain automatic consent to change certain methods of accounting. 2011 tax 1040 ez See the List of Automatic Accounting Method Changes located in the Instructions for Form 3115. 2011 tax 1040 ez For more information on changes in methods of accounting, see Form 3115 and the Instructions for Form 3115. 2011 tax 1040 ez Also see Publication 538. 2011 tax 1040 ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications